V.S. Naipaul, a Nobel Prize writer from Trinidad, who wrote comic masterpieces of life before turning to the larger world, travels from South America to Africa and Asia for richly detailed works in post-colonial states, but August 1
His family announced death in a statement. The reason was not immediately known.
During the second half of the 20th century, some authors were as famous – or dissatisfied – as Naipaul, a prosthetist with talent as great as his pride in controversy. & # 39; & # 39; If an author does not generate hostility, & # 39; & # 39; Mr Naipaul once said: "# 39; & # 39; he is dead. & # 39; & # 39;
Sir Vidia, as he occasionally felt after being ridden by Queen Elizabeth II in 1990, faced accusations of racism, sexism, chauvinism and Islamophobia. He had long-standing literary spells with Paul Theroux, a former proteger, who lambasted Naipaul as "a grouch, a skinflint, tantrum-benägen", and poet Derek Walcott, a Caribbean boy depicting Mr. Naipaul in a poem like "a rodent in old age."
He acknowledged that he tried prostitutes while marrying, physically abused his mistress and treated his wife in such a way, he told the cinema Patrick French that "it could be said that I had killed her. & # 39; # 39; In general, he expressed some regret and maintained a wonderful production, which published more than two dozen volumes ranging from novels to travel stories to repressive works as mixed fiction with personal history.
His books – which included the realistic novels "A House for Mr. Biswas "(1961)," A Bend in the River "(1979) and the Man Booker Award Winning" In a Free State "(1971) was regarded as a technical virtuoso work, even Walcott celebrated as" our finest writer of the English sentence. "" With few exceptions his sentences were crisp, lacking hassle or feeling but often lyrical in simplicity.  Mr. Naipaul wrote "Biswas", the book that elected him to pay homage when he was in his 20 years after moving to England on a scholarship to Oxford University.
The central character of the book, Mohun Biswas, was based on Mr Naipaul's father, a journalist with literary ambitions. "Six-fingered and born in the wrong way," Biswas seeks a personal home and sense of security and personal freedom that property can offer.
The story "Dickensian was in its scope and sympathy, but totally original," culture critic and scriptwriter Stephen Schiff wrote in New Yorker 1994, with dozens of characters and settings ranging from the narrow streets of the Trinidad capital to silent sugarcane plantations.
Like Mr Naipaul's three previous books, including his 1959 history collection "Miguel Street", "the mixed tragicomic moments – endless battles between Biswas and his in-laws – and scenes that seemed to capture the author's private longing for stability and satisfaction."
"In the dark a boy leaned against the cab, his hands behind him staring at the road," wrote Mr.. Naipaul in a passage describing the long-standing memory of the title of a late afternoon bus ride. "He was wearing a vest and nothing more. The west was burning white. For a moment the bus was bubbly in the dark, through shrub and level of sugar cane fields. Biswas could not remember where the cottage stood but the picture was left: a boy leaned against an earthquake that had no reason to be there, under the dark fallen sky, a boy who did not know where the road and that bus went. "
Mr. Naipaul was originally known as a mild chronicles of West Indian life, seen by some critics as part of a group that included the Trinidad writer Sam Selvon, Barbadian novelist George Lamming and Walcott, who was from Saint Lucia.
After "Biswas," but Mr Naipaul wrote Trinidad, Naipaul wrote in 1962 travelogue "Middle Passage", "was" immense, ocreative, cynical, "home to" "a society that did not produce anything, never needed to prove its worth and was never called that v ara effective. & # 39; & # 39;
Mr. Naipaul later said that the book, named for a stage of slave trade where Africans were taken into slavery to America, were "terribly flawed" and too hard in criticism of Trinidad and its Caribbean neighbors.
Still, it was a critical success and created a consequence of travel and travel stories. He visited India for three books, beginning with "& # 39; Darkness Area & # 39; & # 39; (1964), traveled to most Muslim countries Iran, Pakistan, Malaysia and Indonesia for "Among the Believers" (1981) and
His travel writings were often disaster disasters, profiles of societies that Naipaul described as "semi-manufactured" or decay, and peered contempt for the former colonizers and the newly decolonized.
To some critics, Mr Naipaul offered what New Yorker writer Jane Kramer called "a topography of the void", "perceptive criticism of imperialism and oppression. To others, his work was a racist thing. Literature critic Edward Said described Mr Naipaul as" a reconciliation of stereotypes and disgust for the world that produced him, "and called in particular his depiction of Islam as a furious imperialist faith.
Mr. Naipaul did little to comfort his skeptics. "Africans must be kicked," he said once. "That's all they understand." When critics and writer Elizabeth Hardwick asked him in 1979 why some Indian women carry a red dot on the forehead with reference to volume, Naipaul said it was clear that "my head is empty." "
He described a small involvement in his soul, a nauseous spirit that rarely carried him and said he was proud of his courageous travel, not his novels, despite the criticism they sometimes took.
A 1975 trip to report on Zaire (now Congo) by the military ruler Mobutu Sese Seko led to the "A Bend in the River" 280-sided novel reminiscent of Joseph Conrads' Heart of Darkness. & # 39; ; & # 39; The book describes the appearance of an image-tagged, Mobutu-like despot called Big Man, but began with a philosophical statement: "The world is what it is; men who are not anything that allows say, to be something, have no place in it. "
It was a cold opinion that Naipaul believed it was only realistic, born from his travels and poor upbringing.
Vidiadhar Surajprasad Naipaul was born to a Hindu family in Chaguanas on August 17, 1932, 30 years before the island and its neighbor, Tobago, declared independent from Britain. His father-in-law came to Trinidad as an innocent servant from northern India, and his father was a reporter at Trinidad Guardian. His mother came from a family of tallest landowners who had lost much of their wealth.
In French 2008 biography, & # 39; & # 39; The world is what it is, & # 39; & # 39; Naipaul said he was molested by a cousin for several years, who began when he was 6 or 7. Mr Naipaul also described constant conflict between his parents and their families who ran a plot of " A House for Mr. Biswas. & # 39; & # 39;
He found escape by reading Molière, Aesop and Cyrano de Bergerac, author whose amazing creations he eschewed as a writer. Instead, he imitated his father's journalistic eye. In his autobiographical novel & # 39; & # 39; A Way in the World & # 39; & # 39; (1994), he described that he was a teenager by "playing the news line back": "tries to remember words, gestures and expressions in the right order to arrive at an understanding of the people I had been with and the true meaning of what As he had said. After 1950, after studying in Trinidad, Port of Spain, he studied English at Oxford and graduated in 1953, months before his father died after a heart attack. Mr Naipaul opposed the grounds of his family to move home and instead pull down on his writing.
His 1975 novel "Guerrillas", "in the midst of a Caribbean Revolution, marked its commercial breakthrough in the United States. In his later work, he tended increasingly towards autobiography – in novels like The Enigma of Arrival (1987), Half a Life (2001) and Magic Seeds (2004) – and against journalism, in collections like & # 39 ; & # 39; Return of Eva Perón, with Killings in Trinidad & # 39; & # 39; (1980). This book's essay, drawn from five magazine pieces about the political turmoil of the 1970s Argentina, was considered one of his finest nonfiction works.
During his first trip to Argentina in 1972, mr. Naipaul Margaret Gooding, a married Anglo-Argentinian mother of three with whom he set up a sadomasochist business. He credited her with providing "creative energy" to her work. He left his wife, former Patricia Hale, home in England, traveled with Gooding all over the world.
Mr. Naipai's relationship with both women is described as addictive. He once acknowledged that he was so jealous of Gooding's involvement with another man he hit her for two days, to the point that "she could not really be public." "
He revealed his affair to Pat, his wife and loyal amanuensis, one year after it began to tell her that he had never been sexually satisfied in his relationship." I was released. She got ruined, & # 39; & # 39; said Naipaul French. & # 39; & # 39; It was inevitable. & # 39; & # 39;
Mr. Naipaul moved between both women for the next 24 years and travels through Indonesia with Gooding when Pat was inaugurated with cancer in 1995. She died the following year.
Within two months of her death, Naipaul had completed her business with Gooding ("I lived with Margaret until she became middle-aged, almost an old lady," he told French) and married Nadira Alvi, a Pakistani journalist who met him during his travels.
Survivor includes his wife.  Mr. Naipaul was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature 2001, rewarded by the Nobel Committee "for having a united perceptive narrative and indestructible review in works that forces us to see the presence of oppressed stories." "
" "I never had a plan," he said in his Nobel lecture, which credits his success to a trip. & # 39; & # 39; In each step, I could only work within my knowledge and sensitivity and talent and worldview. These things developed book for books. And I had to make the books I did because there were no books on these subjects to give me what I wanted. I had to clean up my world, illuminate it to myself. & # 39; & # 39;