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The world’s oldest yarn fragment shows that the Neanderthals were smarter than we thought



Archaeologists have found the oldest strand of yarn in a prehistoric site in the south of France. This photograph taken with digital microscopy shows it from the cord fragment, which is about 6.2 mm long and 0.5 mm wide.

This illustration shows Elessaurus gondwanoccidens, a long-legged reptile that lived in South America during the early Triassic period. It is a cousin to other mysterious early reptiles that emerged after the Permian mass extinction event 250 million years ago.

The skeletal remains of Homo predecessors are shown in this image. A new study suggests that the precursor is a sister line to Homo erectus, a common ancestor of modern humans, Neanderthals and Denisovans.

An almost two million year old Homo erectus skullcap was found in South Africa. This is the first fossil of erectus found in southern Africa, which places it in the area at the same time as other ancient human ancestors.

This painting shows what Antarctica may have looked like 90 million years ago. It had a temperate marshy rain forest.

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7;s illustration of Dineobellator notohesperus shows them in an open landscape, over what is now New Mexico, with Ojoceratops and Alamosaurus in the background.

Ikaria wariootia was a worm-like creature that lived 555 million years ago. It represents the oldest ancestor of the family tree for most animals.

This is the 3.67 million year old “Little Foot” skull. The bottom view (right) shows the initial position of the first cervical spine, which tells of her main movements and blood flow to the brain.

This is an artist’s illustration of the world’s oldest modern bird, Asteriornis maastrichtensis, in its original environment. Parts of Belgium were covered by a shallow sea, and conditions resembled modern tropical beaches such as the Bahamas 66.7 million years ago.

This donkey skull was recovered in the tomb of a noble woman in the Tang Dynasty. The researchers decided that she played donkey polo and was buried with her donkeys so that she can continue her favorite sport in the afterlife.

Hundreds of mammoth bones found at a site in Russia were once used by hunter-gatherers to build a massive structure 25,000 years ago.

A fossil of an ancient rudist clam named Torreites sanchezi revealed that the earth’s days lasted 23 million hours 70 million years ago.

This is an artist’s impression of dinosaurs on prehistoric mud flats in Scotland, based on various dinosaur prints recovered on the Isle of Skye.

A new study suggests that ostrich egg beads have been used to cement conditions in Africa for more than 30,000 years.

This rock lined the seabed about 3.2 billion years ago, providing evidence that the Earth may have been a “water world” in its ancient past.

These stone tools were found at Dhaba site in India, which showed that Homo sapiens survived a massive volcanic eruption 74,000 years ago.

The remains of 48 people buried in a 13th-century mass grave were found in the Lincolnshire countryside of England.

The lead remains of a Neanderthal have been found in Shanidar Cave, which represents the first discovery of its kind in 20 years.

A rare disease that still affects humans today has been found in the fossilized spine of a duck-billed dinosaur that roamed the earth at least 66 million years ago.

Venezuelan paleontologist Rodolfo Sánchez appears next to a male cormorant of the giant turtle Stupendemys geographicus, for scale.

This artist’s illustration shows the newly discovered Tyrannosaurus rex relative, Thanatotheristes degrootorum.

The newly discovered species Allosaurus jimmadseni represents the earliest known Allosaurus. It was a terrifying predator that lived during the Late Jurassic period millions of years before Tyrannosaurus rex.

Remains found in ancient Herculaneum boathouses revealed that people trying to escape the eruption of Mount Vesuvius were slowly asphyxiated as volcanic clouds passed the city.

The Wulong bohaiensis fossil found in China’s Jehol Province shows some early, exciting aspects related to both birds and dinosaurs.

Shell tools were extracted from an Italian cave showing Neanderthal combed beaches and pigeon in the sea to retrieve a specific type of mussel shell that can be used as a tool.

A closer look at the Heslington brain, considered Britain’s oldest brain and belonged to a man who lived 2,600 years ago. Amazingly enough, the soft tissue was not artificially preserved.

Researchers from Russia’s RAS Institute of Archeology excavated the burial places of four women, who were buried with combat equipment in southwestern Russia and believed to be the women of the Amazon. The oldest woman in the graves wore a unique, rare ceremonial headgear.

Teen Tyrannosaurus rex flooded with knife-like teeth and served as medium-sized carnivores before growing into gigantic bone-crushing adults.

A Homo erectus skullcap, discovered in central Java, Indonesia, reveals how long they lived and when the first human species that erupted stood out.

This is an artistic reconstruction of Lola, a young girl who lived 5,700 years ago.

Part of the scene depicted in the world’s oldest cave art, which depicts half-animals, half-human hybrids that hunt pigs and buffalo.

An ancient Egyptian head cone was first found with the remains of a young woman buried in one of the Amaran tombs.

A bug-like insect was caught in amber crawling and gabbing on a dinosaur feather.

Newly discovered penguins Kupoupou stilwelli lived after the dinosaurs disappeared and act as a missing link between giant extinct penguins and the modern day Antarctic penguins.

This illustration compares the jaws and teeth of two predator dinosaurs, Allosaurus (left) and Majungasaurus (right).

This is an artist’s illustration of Najash rionegrina in the sand dunes of the Kokorkom desert that stretched across northern Patagonia during the Late Cretaceous period. The snake is wrapped around with the hind legs on top of the remnants of a jaw bone from a small charcharodontosaurid dinosaur.

University of South Carolina archaelogist Christopher Moore (second from right) and colleagues collect core samples from White Pond near Elgin, South Carolina, to look for evidence of an impact from an asteroid or comet that may have caused the extinction of large glaciers such as saber-toothed cats and giant doves and mastodons.

Core samples from White Pond near Elgin, South Carolina, show evidence of platinum nails and soot suggesting an impact from an asteroid or comet.

The lagoon in Sosnogorsk, which it probably emerged 372 million years ago, just before a deadly storm, according to an artist’s rendering. The newly discovered tetrapod can be seen on the left side of the image below the surface.

Bronze goods recovered from a river in northern Germany indicate an ancient toolkit from a Bronze Age warrior.

Mosquito pigs are a newly discovered family, genus and species of microinvertebrates that lived 30 million years ago.

Ferrodraco lentoni was a pterosaur, or “flying lizard,” that lived among dinosaurs 96 million years ago. The fossil was found in Australia.

These Late Bronze Age feeding vessels were most likely used for infants drinking animal milk.

This is the first description of what mysterious ancient people called Denisovans, a sister group to Neanderthals, looked like. This image shows a young female Denisovan, reconstructed based on DNA methylation maps. The art was created by Maayan Harel.

Researchers found a fossil of one of the oldest bird species in New Zealand. While its descendants were giant seabirds, this smaller ancestor probably flew over shorter intervals.

A painting shows the new species of giant salamanders called Andrias sligoi, the world’s largest amphibian.

After the discovery in 2013, Victoria’s 66 million year old fossilized skeleton was restored bone to bone. She is the second most complete T. rex fossil.

An artist’s illustration shows how different an ancient “short-term” kangaroo called Simosthenurus occidentalis looked, in contrast to modern kangaroos. Its skull is more like a koala.

An artist illustration of Cryodrakon boreas, one of the largest flying animals that ever lived during the Cretaceous period. Although scientists do not know the color of Cryodracon’s plumage, the colors shown here honor Canada, where the fossil was found.

A graphic thermal image of a T. rex with its dorsotemporal fenestra glowing on the skull.

A complete skull belonging to an early human ancestor has been recovered in Ethiopia. A composition of the 3.8 million-year-old skull of Australopithecus anamensis is seen here together with a facial reconstruction.

The remains of the tomb IIIN199, found under Prague Castle in 1928, belong to a man from the 10th century. His identity has been the subject of much debate for years.

Spinal fossils of a previously undetected type of stegosaurus were found in Morocco. Scientists say they represent the oldest stegosaurus found.

La Chapelle-aux-Saints Neanderthal skull shows signs of external hearing exostosis, known as “surfer’s ear”, in the left canal.

The Fincha Habera mountain shelter in the Ethiopian bale mountains served as a home for prehistoric hunter-gatherers.

The world’s largest parrot, Heracles inexpectatus, lived 19 million years ago in New Zealand. It was over 3 meters long and weighed more than 15 kilos.

Saber-toothed cats, hard wolves and coyotes had different hunting patterns according to a new study of predator fossils found in La Brea Tar Pits.

Researchers found 83 small glassy spheres in fossil mussels from a Florida quarry. Testing indicates that they are evidence of one or more undocumented meteorite impacts in Florida’s distant past.

This primitive dinosaur had a wide W-shaped jaw and a solid leg weapon that resembled a bumpy nose.

An illustration of a Microraptor when it swallows a lizard whole during the Cretaceous period. The well-preserved Microraptor fossils and the lizard were both found, leading to the discovery that the lizard was a previously unknown species.

The back of a skull found in a Greek cave has been dated to 210,000 years ago. Known as Apidima 1, on the right, scientists were able to scan and create it again (center and left). The rounded shape of Apidima 1 is a unique feature of modern humans and contrasts with the Neanderthals and their ancestors.

A 33,000-year-old human skull shows evidence of being hit with a club-like object. The right side of the man’s head has a large depressed fracture.

The newly discovered fossilized femur of an ancient giant bird revealed that it weighed almost as much as an adult polar bear and could reach 11½ feet tall. It lived between 1.5 and 2 million years ago.

This jawbone belonged to a Neanderthal girl who lived 120,000 years ago. It was found in Scladina Cave in Belgium.

This is an artist’s illustration of the newly discovered dinosaur species Fostoria dhimbangunmal.

Radiocarbon dating has revealed that this wooden shield of the Iron Age was made between 395 and 255 BC.

The incredibly well-preserved fossil of a 3 million-year-old extinct species of field mouse found in Germany, which was less than 3 inches long, was found to have red pigment in its coat.

A mass grave dating to 5,000 years ago in Poland contains 15 people who were all from the same extended family.

This is an artist’s impression of Ambopteryx longibrachium, one of only two dinosaurs known to have membrane wings. The dinosaur fossilized remains were found in Liaoning, in northeastern China, 2017.

Reconstruction of a small tyrannosauroid Suskityrannus hazelae from the Late Cretaceous.

Scientists have been studying Archeopteryx fossils for 150 years, but new X-ray data reveals that the bird-like dinosaur may have been an “active flyer.”

A 160,000-year-old Denisovan jaw bone found in a cave on the Tibetan Plateau is the first evidence of the existence of this ancient human group outside the Denisova Cave in Siberia.

An artist’s illustration of Simbakubwa kutoka africa, a giant carnivore that lived 23 million years ago. It is known from fossils in most of its jaws, parts of the skull and parts of its skeleton. It was a hyaenodont, a now extinct group of mammalian predators, larger than a modern polar bear.

The right upper teeth of the newly discovered species Homo luzonensis. The teeth are smaller and more simplified than those belonging to other Homo species.

The ravaging and terrifying “Scotty” is the world’s largest Tyrannosaurus rex and the largest dinosaur skeleton ever found in Canada.

Researchers discovered unknown species at the Qingjiang fossil site on the banks of the Danshui River, near its junction with the Qingjiang River in Hubei Province, China.

During a study of the ancient Iberian population, the remains of a man and a woman buried together in a Spanish Bronze Age site named Castillejo de Bonete showed that the woman was a local and the man’s latest ancestors had come from Central Europe.

Durrington Walls is a late Neolithic hangout in Wiltshire. Pig bones recovered at the site revealed that people and livestock traveled hundreds of miles for celebration and celebration.

An artist’s impression of a Galleonosaurus dorisae herd on a riverside in the Australian-Antarctic gorge valley during the early crises of 125 million years ago.

The remains of 137 children and 200 llamas were found in Peru in an area that was once part of the Chimú state culture, which was at the peak of power during the 15th century. The children and the llamas may have been sacrificed due to flooding.

The tooth of an extinct giant earthworm that lived in Belize 27,000 years ago revealed that the area was dry, rather than the jungle it is today.

An artist’s illustration of what the little tyrannosaur Moros intrepidus would have looked like 96 million years ago. These little predators would eventually become Tyrannosaurus rex.

Examples of tools made of monkey bones and teeth recovered from the late Pleistocene layers in Fa-Hien Lena Cave in Sri Lanka show that early humans used sophisticated techniques to hunt monkeys and squirrels.

Footprints that are believed to belong to Neanderthals have been found in the Catalan sand dune.

Two of the fossil specimens discovered in Korea had reflective eyes, a feature that is still evident under light.

An artist illustration of Mnyamawamtuka moyowamkia, a long-necked titanosaur from the middle of the chalk recently found in Tanzania. Its spinal cord has a unique heart shape, which contributed to its name. In Swahili, the name translates to “Mtuka animal with a heart-shaped tail.”

The oldest evidence of mobility is 2.1 billion years old and found in Gabon. The tubes, discovered in black slate, are filled with pyrite crystals generated by the conversion of biological tissue by bacteria, which is found in layers of clay minerals.

Researchers recently studied climate change in Greenland as it happened during the Vikings. By using sediment cores in the lake, they discovered that it was actually warmer than previously thought. They studied in several places, including a reproduction of the 21st century by Thjodhild’s church at Erik the Red Farm, known as Brattahlíð, in today’s Qassiarsuk, Greenland.

This is an artist’s illustration of Antarctica 250 million years ago. The newly discovered fossil from a dinosaur relative, Antarctanax shackletoni, revealed that reptiles lived among the various wildlife in Antarctica after the mass extinction.

Leg points and pierced teeth found in Denisova Cave were dated to early Upper Paleolithic. A new study establishes the timeline of the cave, and it protected the first known people as early as 300,000 years ago.

This artist illustration shows a marine reptile resembling a platypus hunting in the twilight. This ducked animal was the first reptile to have unusually small eyes that probably required it to use other senses, such as the tactile sensation of its duck, to hunt for prey.

Although it is difficult to detect, researchers found patches of lapis lazuli pigment, called ultramarine, in the dental plate of the lower jaw of a medieval woman.

A Neanderthal fossil, left and a modern human skeleton. Neanderthals have often been considered to show high trauma events compared to modern humans, but a new study shows that head trauma was consistent for both.

The world’s oldest figurative artwork from Borneo dates back to 40,000 years ago, when people lived on what is now called the Earth’s third largest island.

A 250,000-year-old Neanderthal toddler contains an unprecedented discovery of the seasons of birth, nursing, illness and lead lighting during the first three years of his life.

An artist illustration shows giant nocturnal elephant birds breeding in the ancient forests of Madagascar at night. A new study suggests that the now extinct birds were nocturnal and blind.

Kebara 2 is the most complete Neanderthal fossil recovered to date. It was revealed in Israel’s Kebara Cave, where other remains of Neanderthals have been found.

The world’s oldest intact shipwreck was found by a research team in the Black Sea. It is a Greek merchant ship dating to 400 BC. The vessel was surveyed and digitally mapped by two distant underwater vehicles.

This fossil represents a new piranha-like fish from the Jurassic period with sharp, pointed teeth. It was probably fed on the fins of other fish.

The fossil skull of the young Flygocus known as Andrew, is owned by Cary Woodruff, director of paleontology at the Great Plains Dinosaur Museum.

Two small bones from the Ciemna cave in Poland are the oldest human remains in the country. The condition of the legs also indicates that the baby is eaten by a large bird.

This artist illustration shows the newly discovered dinosaur species Ledumahadi mafub, which was born in South Africa’s early Jurassic. Heterodontosaurus, another South African dinosaur, can also be seen in the foreground.

A 73,000 year old red shutters pattern was drawn on a flake of the silicate, formed when sand and gravel cement together, and was found in a cave in South Africa.

A suite of Middle Neolithic ceramics including typical Danilo ware, figulina and rhyta used to hold meat, milk, cheese and yogurt.

These four dinosaurs show the evolution of the Alvarezauri. From the left, Haplocheirus, Xiyunykus, Bannykus and Shuvuuia reveal the jaw extension, reduction of teeth and changes in the hand and arm.

Eorhynchochelys sinensis is an early turtle that lived 228 million years ago. It had a toothless beak, but no shell.

The bones of a 7-year-old, recovered from an old Roman cemetery, show bending and deformities associated with rocket.

The famous Easter statues, called moai, were originally full-body figures that have been partially covered over time. They represent important Rapa Nui ancestors and were carved after a population was established on the island 900 years ago.

Researchers are standing at the excavation site at Aubrey Hole 7, where cremated human remains were recovered at Stonehenge for study. New research suggests that 40% of 25 individuals buried at Stonehenge were not from there – but they may have transported stones from western Wales and helped build it.

The fossil from the newly discovered pansardinosauri Akainacephalus johnsoni was found in southern Utah.

The foot is part of a partial skeleton of a 3.32 million year old skeleton of an Australopithecus afarensis child called Selam.

Asteroid impact that caused dinosaurs to become extinct also destroyed global forests, according to a new study. This illustration shows one of the few land-dwelling birds that survived the toxic environment and mass extinction.

The remains of a butchered rhino help scientists to understand when early humans reached the Philippines. They found a 75% complete skeleton of a rhinoceros that was clearly butchered, with 13 of its bones showing cut marks and areas where the bones were beaten to release marrow, at Kalinga’s archaeological site on the island of Luzon.

This is just one of 26 individuals found at the site of a massacre from the fifteenth century on the Swedish island of Öland. This teen was found lying on his side, suggesting a slower death. Other skeletons found in the houses and streets in the ring fort at Sandby castle show signs of sudden death through blows to the head.

The skeleton of a young woman and her fetus was found in a brick chest dating to medieval Italy. Her skull shows an example of neurosurgery, and her child was extruded after death in a rare “coffin birth.”

This part of a whale skull was found at the construction site in Calaveras Dam, California, along with at least 19 others. Some of the pieces are 3 meters long.

A stone age scopes skull shows trepanation, a hole in the skull that was created by people as a surgical intervention or experiment.

To the left is a fossil skull of our hominin ancestor Homo heidelbergensis, who lived 200,000 to 600,000 years ago. To the right is a modern human skull. Hominins had pronounced brows, but modern humans developed mobile eyebrows as the face shape became smaller.

To the left is a 13,000-year-old footprint found in the sediment on Calvert Island, off the Canadian Pacific coast. To the right is a digitally enhanced image that shows details of the footprint.

A central platform at Star Carr in North Yorkshire, England, was excavated by a research team that studied past climate change in the middle of the Stone Age. The Star Carr website is home to the oldest evidence of carpentry in Europe and built structures in the UK.

This wall of paintings is located in the La Pasiega cave in Spain. The rise shape of red horizontal and vertical lines is more than 64,000 years old and was made by Neanderthals.

These perforated shells were found in the Spanish sea cave Cueva de los Aviones and date from 115,000 to 120,000 years ago. Scientists believe that these served as body decorations for the Neanderthals.

The earliest modern human fossil ever found outside Africa has been recovered in Israel. This suggests that modern humans left Africa at least 50,000 years earlier than previously thought. The upper jawbone, including several teeth, was recovered at a prehistoric cave site.

This is an excavated structure at the northern edge of the Grand Plaza at Teposcolula-Yucundaa in Oaxaca, Mexico. Researchers investigated a “pestilence” cemetery associated with a devastating epidemic 1545-1550. New analysis suggests that salmonella caused a typhoid fever epidemic.

Standing about 4 feet tall, early human ancestor Paranthropus boisei had a small brain and a broad, scaly face. It is best known for having large teeth and strong chewing muscles.


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