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The Brexit Agreement: This is in Boris Johnson's business

Showdown in Westminster r. On Saturday, British parliamentarians must attend the special session Boris Johnson's (55) Brexit agreement destroys the weekend His predecessor Theresa May (63) failed with his proposal three times to the deputies, does Johnson have better chances? BLICK clarifies the key issues.

What sets Johnson apart from May's agreement?

The Northern Ireland backstop, the major sticking point in the Brexit dispute, has been replaced. Otherwise the proposed agreement is confusingly similar. Johnson's contract has 141 clauses – just six less than Mays.

What is backstop?

The biggest issue in Brexit negotiations is backstop.

The original agreement provides for a special customs union with the EU for Northern Ireland. , This was to prevent a hard border on the Irish island. If a contract is not signed before the UK's departure from the EU on March 29, the so-called backstop will be used.

The transitional measures should prevent a hard border on the island by leaving Northern Ireland part of the EU internal market.

But above all, this backstop faces opposition from unionists and conservatives in England. With a backstop, the EU's external border between Ireland and Britain ran in the Irish Sea. Exports from England to Northern Ireland would no longer be so easy and would damage the UK economy.

How was the backbone of the bastard replaced?

By a one-off decision: EU Member Ireland and Northern Ireland, the first are no border controls and customs duties. This means, for example, that a Northern Irish trawler, even if he flies under the British flag, can sell his catch to Northern Ireland – under EU law.

Otherwise, Northern Ireland remains in the Customs Union with the UK to get free trade agreements etc. to benefit. Goods are checked in UK ports and those with the final "final destination" Northern Ireland can be delivered without duty. However, Brexit chief negotiator Michel Barnier (68) said: "Goods that could potentially enter the EU internal market via Northern Ireland will be paid under EU law." In short, Northern Ireland should not be a cheap gateway for goods from third countries.

And: The special customs regime is not final. From 2024, an extension for four to eight years is always voted for in the Northern Ireland Parliament.

Who wins at Johnson's business?

  • Johnson himself, who can present a new Brexit deal without the controversial backstop.

  • The EU that hardly had to make concessions – and yet need not be afraid of a danger to the long-term agreement through a new border on the Irish island.

  • Brexit main negotiator Michel Barnier, who negotiated skillfully.

  • European Commission President Jean-Claude Juncker (65), who is thinking of the agreement just before the end of his term, unlike the framework agreement with the Swiss.

  • Northern Ireland, who need not be afraid of the hard won peace – and the ordinary voting mechanism Keep in control.

Who's losing the business?

The Northern Irish DUP. She would have wanted sole veto power over possible extensions of the special tariff agreements.

Will Johnson's agreement be won by Parliament?

It gets scarce. But: According to experts, the chance is greater than with May's deal. The controversial backstop is out, time is pressing. At the same time, Johnson lacks a government majority in parliament.

Good for the British Prime Minister: he has the group of Tory Brexit hardliners around Jacob Rees-Mogg behind him. He has also offered the 21 theories thrown out by the faction that they will be resumed if they vote for the deal – most will probably accept.

At the same time, he must try to get DUP back on board. May had already done so before. And then he still hopes for some Labor votes – even though opposition leader Jeremy Corbyn (70) counted against the deal.

What happens if Johnson's deal gets broken?

If MPs reject the draft treaty, Johnson must stay with the EU for an extension of the expiration date. He is bound by the "no-no-deal" law, which banned him from leaving the EU on October 31 without any agreement.

Brexit Chronology: What Happened So far

An overview of the most important events since the British vote.

  • Yes to Brexit: The referendum on June 23, 2016 speaks for itself The majority of 51.9% of respondents to the UK leave the EU. Thus, the United Kingdom, which joined the EU's forerunner in 1973, will be the first Member State to leave the EU.
  • Cameron resigns: One day after the referendum, British Prime Minister David Cameron resigns, who had tried to stay in the EU.
  • Brexit advocates take over: On May 13, 2016 May becomes Prime Minister. It uses David Davis as a Brexit minister. The spokesman for the Brexit camp, Boris Johnson, becomes Foreign Minister.
  • Official departure: On March 29, 2017, London submits an application for departure in Brussels pursuant to Article 50 of the EU Treaty. This is the two-year period until March 29, 2019, where both sides must negotiate the details of Brexit.
  • Lost Majority: On June 8, 2017, early elections will be held on May's initiative. The Conservative Tories are losing their majority and are now dependent on the support of the Northern Ireland DUP.
  • The first conditions agreed: London and Brussels will agree on three main areas for separation on December 8, 2017: the UK's financial obligations to the EU, EU citizens' rights and the future border regime between Ireland and Northern Ireland.
  • Important ministers resign: On July 6, 2018, May gets his leadership from his cabinet to seek a "free trade zone" with the EU, which would mean a close alliance even after Brexit. Davis and Johnson resign in protest.
  • Draft Contract Agreement: On November 13, 2018, the British Government announces an agreement on a draft treaty. Shortly thereafter, four ministers resigned from the maize cabinet. The EU accepts the agreement on 25 November.
  • May postpones Parliament's vote: Against the background of impending defeat, May casts a vote in lower houses scheduled for December 10 on the agreement. On December 12, she survives a vote without confidence in her own party.
  • The Lower House rejects contract: On January 15, 2019, the Lower House rejects the Brexit agreement. Supervisor Jeremy Corbyn then applies for a vote of no confidence in the government, but May barely survives.
  • "Plan B" without a new strategy: May does not announce a "Plan B" for Brexit on 21 January 2019, but only promises renegotiations with the EU across the Irish border. The EU rejects strict amendments to the agreement.
  • London calls for negotiations on Northern Ireland Question: On January 29, 2019, the British Parliament votes for renegotiations on the so-called backstop for Northern Ireland. The EU reiterates its opposition to any renegotiation.
  • Rejection of the Brexit Treaty: On March 12, 2019, the House of Commons voted again against the Brexit agreement by a large majority, despite May having received "legally binding" EU promises at the last minute for backstop, MPs must now vote on Wednesday and Thursday for a tough Brexit without a readmission agreement and a possible postponement of the withdrawal date.
  • No exit without agreement: Just two weeks before the planned Brexit, the British House of Commons voted against a withdrawal without agreement on March 13, 2019.
  • Brexit shift: The British House of Representatives voted on March 14, 2019 to extend the readmission period. The vote was 413 against 202 votes. But it still needs to be approved by the EU.
  • Brexit shift: Theresa May asks the European Union on March 21 for Brexit committees until June 30. But the heads of the remaining 27 EU countries must agree on an extension.
  • EU grants suspension: The EU-27 and the British government on Thursday agreed on a dual strategy for Brexit. This prevented an unregulated EU departure from the country on 29 March. Should the UK Parliament still approve the negotiated exit agreement next week, it should postpone the Brexit date to May 22, according to the compromise text of late Thursday night. If the lower house does not agree, there should be an extension to April 12.
  • May lose control: On March 25, Parliament will vote on Brexit alternatives. The UK Parliament will vote against alternatives to the Brexit agreement against the government's will. A request was accepted late Monday night with a majority of 329 to 302 votes in the lower house. The options include a closer link with the EU, a second referendum or a withdrawal of the resignation statement. A vote for one of these variants would not be legally binding, but would give an indication of what a majority in Parliament could be.
  • Further resignation from May's government: Industry Secretary Richard Harrington announced his resignation on Monday night. In addition, Secretary of State Alistair Burt and Secretary of State Steve Brine should resign from Prime Minister Theresa May.
  • Parliament says 'No' eight times: As for compelling indicative votes, Parliament rejected all possible Brexit options.
  • Third defeat: On March 29, the lower house again ruled against the Treaty of Brussels. For Theresa May and her resignation agreement, it was already the third "no" in a row.
  • The lower house cannot agree: The British lower house on Monday night rejected all four proposals for closer ties to the EU after Brexit or a second referendum. Now the search for a way out of the Brexit dilemma on Wednesday (03.04) should continue.
  • More Brexit exhibition? The British lower house has voted in favor of a bill requiring the government to postpone Brexit after April 12. An extension of the Brexit deadline must be approved unanimously by the remaining 27 Member States.
  • Can write a letter to the EU: The British Prime Minister has requested a new postponement of the Brexit deadline in Brussels until 30 June. At the same time, the UK will start preparing for the European elections.
  • Date of elections to the EU: The British Government offers to prepare for an extension of the EU elections and has on 23 May as the date of the EU elections in the UK, in the midst of the aborted Brexit.
  • Deadline Halloween: The UK has approved a renewed Brexit extension to October 31. British Prime Minister Theresa May accepted the EU's bid to postpone Brexit again on Thursday night.
  • Termination May: On May 24, Theresa May announced that she would resign as Prime Minister on June 7, 2019. She announced that she would continue to run the office until a successor in the election was elected party leader. This will then become prime minister.
  • The British have a new prime minister: Former Foreign Minister Boris Johnson is elected as the new head of the Tories by his party members on July 23. He will also become Prime Minister of the United Kingdom directly. Johnson wants to bring Brexit definitively on October 31 across the stage – if needed without agreement.
  • Bang in the UK: Boris Johnson releases a bomb at the end of August: Parliament is sent for a forced break. Consequently, the current session of Parliament is scheduled to be adjourned no earlier than September 9 and 12. Parliament's House is only expected to open its doors again on October 14 – almost two weeks before leaving the EU.
  • Johnson loses majority: British Prime Minister Boris Johnson lost his arithmetic majority in parliament on Tuesday with the replacement of party by Conservative MP Phillip Lee. Lee joined the Liberals over Johnson's Brexit course.
  • New elections rejected: On September 4, 2019, MPs voted for a bill aimed at preventing a Brexit without an agreement on October 31. With this, Johnson has failed with his tough Brexit course in the House of Commons. His request for a new election on October 15 was also crushed.
  • Bercow leaves the post: On September 10, the eccentric House Speaker John Bercow announced his departure on October 31. His announcement was followed by emotional outbursts in the British Parliament.
  • Forced interruption begins: Parliament's mandatory break began on the night of September 10. Parliament would not meet again until 14 October.
  • Johnson's first slip: A Scottish court finds Johnson's unlawful interruption on September 11. Now the UK's highest court, the highest court, will decide the case.
  • Second defeat for Premier: On September 24, the Supreme Court ruled in favor of the British House of Commons: Boris Johnson's forced break for several weeks is considered inadmissible and repealed with immediate effect.
  • Politics as usual: Already on September 25, Parliament met again.
  • Independence efforts were revived: Scotland's Nicola Sturgeon, Head of Government, announced on October 16 that a referendum on independence from the United Kingdom would be held next year. She claims that the situation has changed fundamentally after the British vote to withdraw from the EU.
  • Time is running out: Week-long fight for a Brexit agreement before the EU summit 17-18. October in Brussels. The biggest finding in the negotiations is the backstop – the customs rules between the border between Ireland and Northern Ireland after the end of the EU.
  • Brexit proposal rejected: On October 17, the Northern Irish Protestant Party rejected parts of the Brexit proposals, which were negotiated with difficulties between London and Brussels.
  • An agreement in the Brexit dispute at last: Immediately before the EU summit, Britain and the EU reached a breakthrough in the Brexit dispute on 17 October. An agreement was negotiated and approved by EU member states. On Saturday, 19 October, the British Parliament voted on the proposal.


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