vaccines that have not yet been administered to humans
vaccines in small-scale safety trials
vaccines in extended safety trials
vaccines in large-scale efficacy trials
vaccines approved for general use
Source: WHO. Last updated 14 Sep.
Researchers around the world are competing to develop a vaccine against Covid-19, with more than 170 candidate vaccines now being tracked by the World Health Organization (WHO).
Vaccines normally require several years of testing and additional time to produce on a scale, but researchers hope to develop a coronavirus vaccine within 12 to 18 months.
Vaccines mimic the virus – or part of the virus – they protect against, which stimulates the immune system to develop antibodies. They have to follow higher safety standards than other drugs because they are given to millions of healthy people.
Latest vaccine news
Experiments with the vaccine at Oxford / AstraZeneca have been resumed after a short break to investigate the case of a participant who had become ill.
The WHO has stated that it does not expect extensive vaccinations against coronavirus until mid-2021.
How are vaccines tested?
preclinical stage of testing, researchers give the vaccine to animals to see if it triggers an immune response.
phase 1 In clinical trials, the vaccine is given to a small group of people to determine if it is safe and to learn more about the immune response it elicits.
phase 2, the vaccine is given to hundreds of people so that researchers can learn more about its safety and correct dosage.
phase 3The vaccine is given to thousands of people to confirm its safety – including rare side effects – and its effectiveness. These studies involve a control group receiving placebo.
Vaccines in clinical trials
Phase in progress
University of Oxford / AstraZeneca
The University of Oxford vaccine is delivered via a chimpanzee virus, called the vaccine vector. The vector contains the genetic code for the protein spikes found on the coronavirus and triggers a strong immune response in the human body. The vaccine is in a combined phase 2/3 study in the UK and has recently been in phase 3 studies in South Africa and Brazil.
CanSino Biologics Inc./ Beijing Institute of Biotechnology
BioNTech / Fosun Pharma / Pfizer
Wuhan Institute of Biological Products / Sinopharm
The American biotechnology company Moderna is developing a vaccine candidate that uses messenger RNA (or in short mRNA) to trick the body into producing viral proteins itself. No mRNA vaccine has ever been approved for an infectious disease and Moderna has never brought a product to market. Proponents of the vaccine say it can be easier to mass produce than traditional vaccines.
The Chinese company Sinovac is developing a vaccine based on inactivated Covid-19 particles. The vaccine has shown a promising safety profile at the beginning of the test and is now being transferred to phase 3 studies in Brazil.
Beijing Institute of Biological Products / Sinopharm
Gamaleya Research Institute
Osaka University / AnGes / Takara Bio
Kentucky Bioprocessing, Inc.
Janssen pharmaceutical company
Research Institute for Biological Safety Problems, Rep of Kazakhstan
Cadila Healthcare Limited
Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences
Anhui Zhifei Longcom Biopharmaceutical / Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences
Inovio Pharmaceuticals / International Vaccine Institute
Finlay Vaccine Institute, Cuba
Institute Pasteur / Themis / Univ. From Pittsburgh CVR / Merck Sharp & Dohme
West China Hospital, Sichuan University
FBRI SRC VB VECTOR, Rospotrebnadzor, Koltsovo
People’s Liberation Army (PLA) Academy of Military Sciences / Walvax Biotech.
Clover Biopharmaceuticals Inc./GSK/Dynavax
ReiThera / LEUKOCARE / Univercells
University of Queensland / CSL / Seqirus
Medigen Vaccine Biologics Corporation / NIAID / Dynavax
University of Melbourne / Murdoch Children’s Research Institute
Murdoch Children’s Research Institute in Australia is conducting a phase 3 study with a nearly 100-year-old tuberculosis vaccine. The vaccine is not believed to directly protect against Covid-19 but may increase the body’s non-specific immune response.
Source: WHO. Last updated 14 Sep.