Home / Science / Simple sea anemones are not so simple after all

Simple sea anemones are not so simple after all



<div data-thumb = "https://3c1703fe8d.site.internapcdn.net/newman/csz/news/tmb/2019/simpleseaane.jpg" data-src = "https: //3c1703fe8d.site.internetcdn .net / newman / gfx / news / 2019 / simpleseaane.jpg "data-sub-html =" This Pachycerianthus magnus tube anemone has a surprisingly complex mitochondrial genome, found Ohio State scientist Sergio Stampar. ">

<img src = "https://3c1703fe8d.site.internapcdn.net/newman/csz/news/800/2019/simpleseaane.jpg" alt = "Simple sea anemones are not so simple despite everything" title = "This Pachycerianthus magnus tube anemone has a surprisingly complex mitochondrial genome, found Ohio State scientist Sergio Stampar. "/>
This Pachycerianthus magnus tube anemone has a surprisingly complex mitochondrial genome, Ohio State researchers found. Credit: Sergio Stampar.

The pipe house is an old sea life resembling a prehistoric flower. The animals live slow, long and predictable lifestyles and look quite similar from species to species.

It is easy to use the word "simple" when considering this relation to coral and jellyfish. But don't wait so fast.

New research on pipe anemones challenges everything that evolutionary biologists thought they knew about marine animal genetics. The mitochondrial DNA tube in the anemone of the tube or Ceriantharia is a true head scraper, from the unexpected arrangement to its previously unused magnitude.

Researchers, including a law from the Ohio State University, have published new findings that show that the DNA of the tube anemone has shown that a few species of mitochondria have been shown to do. It defies the classic monk form that it should "be" in and is arranged in several fragmented pieces, the number of which varies depending on the species.

In addition, the animal holds the record for the largest mitochondrial genome reported to date. It contains almost 81

,000 base pairs, or parts of genetic information, according to the new study, published online in the journal Scientific Reports . Human mitochondrial DNA contains fewer than 17,000 base pairs.

"These old animals have simple behavior and simple anatomy, and so we have thought of them as rather simple creatures until now. But their biology is quite complicated. Tube anemones can be more dynamic than those of more complex and newer animals like snails, insects and vertebrates, says Meg Daly, a professor of development, ecology and organism biology at Ohio State.

About mitochondrial DNA central to this study: This is not the DNA that most of us remember to learn if in school – the instructions contained within the core of each cell of an organism and organized in the linear double helix. Instead, mitochondrial DNA is usually circular in shape and contains much less information than nuclear DNA, and it lives within the mitochondria – double-membrane structures present in amounts within the cell, outside the nucleus, mitochondria are responsible for energy production and are sometimes called "cell forces" for living creatures. 9659010] While scientists have been able to sequence mitochondrial DNA in other similar animals, they have hitherto struck a roadblock with these tube anemones until now, Sade Daly. About two decades ago, a scientist attempted to draw a drawing of the mitochondrial genome based on the theory that it would be circular.

"It was impossible and no one really knew why before," says Daly, who has made a career in studying sea anemones and their biodiversity.

<div data-thumb = "https://3c1703fe8d.site.internapcdn.net/newman/csz/news/tmb/2019/1-simpleseaane.jpg" data-src = "https://3c1703fe8d.site .internapcdn.net / newman / gfx / news / 2019/1-simpleseaane.jpg "data-sub-html =" This Isarachnanthus nocturnus tube anemon has the largest animal mitochondrial genome so far reported according to a research group, including one group from Ohio State University. Credit: Sergio Stamper ">

<img src = "https://3c1703fe8d.site.internapcdn.net/newman/csz/news/800/2019/1-simpleseaane.jpg" alt = "Simple sea anemones are not so simple despite everything" title = "This Isarachnanthus nocturnus tube anemone has so far found the largest animal mitochondrial genome, according to a research group, including a group from Ohio State University.
This Isarachnanthus nocturnus tube anemone has the largest animal mitochondrial genome to date, according to a group of researchers, including a group from Ohio State University. Credit: Sergio Stampar

Using advanced supercomputer technology, researchers examined two species of tube anemones and found that they have five linear fragments of mitochondrial DNA and the other has eight. Previously, researchers had found a linear genome in the manometer's mitochondria, but the linear structure in combination with the variation in size and number of fragments seen in the tube anemone is unusual.

"We find that the typical loop arrangement we find is meaningful, because one of the advantages of mitochondria that has a circular genome is that it is replicated easily," she said.

"We have thought of this loop-shaped design as something that helps mitochondria do their job quickly and efficiently."

Now, it remains for Daly and others who study these creatures to find out why this may have happened from an evolutionary perspective.

"So far there is no rhyme or reason why the anemone has this unusual mitochondrial genome," Daly said.

Sergio Stampar, the Brazilian researcher who led the study, said that the two species examined in this research represent the largest groups of Ceriantharia.

"These results present a con group's side-by-side" photograph. "In addition to the large size of the genomes, the most surprising thing we found was the significant difference between the two species," says Stampar, who works at the Universidad Estadual Paulista in São Paulo.

Stampar said the work raises many questions, because the supposed change from circular to linear genome in anemones should not be a simple process, a broad discussion on the development of several groups of related animals called Cnidaria – which includes jellyfish, corals and sea ​​anemones – is absolutely necessary. [19659004] It would be tempting to expect similarities in the evolutionary pressure of sea animals that are old and relatively simple in terms of appearance and function, but the new evidence calls it questionable, Daly said.

"Maybe they all started in the same place but have been subject to different evolutionary systems and m OPPORTUNITIES. "



More information:
Sérgio N. Stampar et al. Linear mitochondrial genome in Anthozoa (Cnidaria): A case study in Ceriantharia, Scientific Reports (2019). DOI: 10,1038 / s41598-019-42621-z

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Ohio State University




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Simple sea anemones are not that simple after all (2019, April 23)
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