Movie shows the woman, Daria Sosnovskaya, who is arrested by two officers at a Moscow ally on Saturday, before one of them strikes her and causes her to fall back.
She then fights with officers when she is forced into a police vehicle, the video shows.
The clip has been viewed more than four million times on social media and has caused outrage in Russia. It will now be examined by the country's investigative committee – the most important federal investigative body in the country – Sosnovskaya's lawyer told the Russian state news agency TASS after filing a complaint.
In an interview with AFP, Sosnovskaya's lawyer said his client "would be hospitalized, but she refused, although she received a medical statement confirming that she had received a concussion so she cannot appear in court now for she feels really bad. "
Kremlin spokesman Dmitry Peskov said on Tuesday that a new series of protests in the Russian capital" was not a crisis "and allowed the Kremlin to" monitor "the situation. "We do not agree with those who call what happens a political crisis. It is not a crisis. There are protests in many countries, linked to many issues. In European capitals, around the world," Peskov said in a conference call with reporters . "We must evaluate things properly. This cannot be associated with any crisis."
He added: "We also monitor the material documenting [acts of] civil disturbance and aggression against the staff of law enforcement agencies, that is, also unacceptable."
The event occurred when tens of thousands of people gathered in Moscow for a fifth consecutive weekend, demanding fair local elections. More than 200 people were arrested, according to OVD-Info, a group supervising the police. More than 300 had been arrested the previous weekend.
When it shared the video to its ten million followers on Instagram, Russian rapper Egor Kreed said: "It doesn't matter what she did, something like that wouldn't happen!"  "I really hope they will pay attention, they will find him, they will punish him and he will not get away with it," he added, urging his followers to report information on the officer's identity.
Protesters demand that the authorities allow independent candidates to participate in the city's upcoming local elections. Some protests have been sanctioned by authorities.
The authorities said that the candidates would be prevented from running because they failed to get a sufficient number of signatures to be able to put on the ballot box. Opposition politicians have rejected this accusation.
Russian President Vladimir Putin has held a national office for almost 20 years. While opposition protests pose no direct threat to his rule, they are seen as a barometer of dissatisfaction over his long term.
CNN's Olga Pavlova, Nathan Hodge and Sheena McKenzie contributed to the reporting.