When scientists scramble to determine if there is life on Mars, Ohio University Professor Emeritus William Romoser's research shows that we already have the evidence, courtesy of photographs from various Mars rovers.
Dr. Romoser, who specializes in arbovirology and general / medical entomology, has spent several years studying photographs of the red planet available on the Internet. He found many examples of insect-like forms, structured in the same way as bees, as well as reptile-like forms, both as fossils and living beings. He presented his results on Tuesday, November 1
"It has been and still is life on Mars," Romoser said, noting that the images are shown to show both fossilized and living creatures. "There is an obvious diversity among the Martian insect-like fauna that shows many features similar to Terran insects that are interpreted as advanced groups – such as the presence of wings, wing flexion, smooth gliding / flight and various structured leg elements."
Romoser said that while the Martian rover, especially the Curiosity Rover, has been looking for indicators of organic activity, there are a number of photos that clearly show the insect and reptile-like forms. Many photos show images where body segment joints, along with legs, antennae, and wings, can be picked out from the surrounding area, and one even appears to show one of the insects in a steep dive before pulling up just before hitting the ground.  Individual images were carefully studied while varying photographic parameters such as brightness, contrast, saturation, inversion and so on. No content was added or removed. Criteria used in Romoser's research included: Dramatic deviation from the environment, clarity of shape, body symmetry, segmentation of body parts, repetitive shape, skeletal remains and observation of shapes in close proximity to each other. Specific positions, evidence of movement, flight, obvious interaction suggested by relative positions and shining eyes were taken to be compatible with the existence of living forms.
"When a clear image of a given shape was identified and described, it was useful in facilitating recognition of other less clear, but no less valid, images of the same basic shape," Romoser said. "An exoskeleton and attached appendages are sufficient to establish identification as arthropods. Three body regions, a single pair of antennae, and six bones are traditionally sufficient to establish identification as" insect "on the earth. These characteristics should also be valid for identifying an organism. on Mars as insect-like. On these bases, arthropod, insect-like forms can be seen on Mars rover photos. "
Particular aerial behavior was evident in many images," Romoser said. These creatures are similar to wild bumblebees or carpenters on earth. Other pictures show these "bees" that seem to protect or live in caves. And others show a fossilized creature resembling a snake.
Romoser, who was an entomology professor at Ohio University for 45 years and founded his Tropical Disease Institute, also spent nearly 20 years as a visiting vector-based disease researcher at the US Army Medical Institute of Infectious Diseases. Between 1973 and 1998, Romoser wrote and authored four editions of the widely used textbook, "The Science of Entomology."
Romoser noted that interpretations of insect and reptile-like creatures that he described may change in the future as knowledge of life on Mars develops, but that the large amount of evidence is compelling.
"The presence of higher metazoan organisms on Mars means the presence of nutrients / energy sources and processes, food chains and pathways and water as elements that function in a viable, extreme, ecological environment sufficient to sustain life," he said. have observed cases suggesting standing water or small streams with obvious meandering and with expected blur of small submerged rocks, larger emerging rocks at the atmosphere / water interface, a humid bank area and a drier area beyond the humid area. Water on Mars has been reported a number of times, including surface water detected by instrumentation on Viking, Pathfinder, Phoenix and Curiosity.
"The proof of life on Mars presented here provides a strong foundation for many additional important biological as well as social and political issues," he added. It also represents a solid motivation for further studies. "
D3461: Does biodiversity extend to insects / arthropods outside the earth? esa.confex.com/esa/2019/meetin … app.cgi / Paper / 147473
Photos show proof of life on Mars, Ohio entomologist claims (2019, November 19)
retrieved November 19, 2019
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