One of the world's earliest known mosques, built around 1
The remains, dating from the 7th or 8th century, were found in the Bedouin town of Rahat
Israel's Antiquities Authority (IAA) says the mosque was unearthed during building work in the area.
This is the first known mosque from this period in the area, said the IAA said Mecca and Jerusalem.
Excavation directors Jon Seligman and Shahar said the mosque would be "a rare discovery" anywhere in the world ".
Researchers believe the mosque's congregation were likely to have been local farmers.
The building was open-air, rectangular-shaped and had a "Mihrab" – or a prayer niche – facing south toward Mecca, Islam's holiest city.
"These features are evidence of the purpose for which this building was used, many hundred years ago," said Mr Seligman.
It is one of the first mosques constructed after the arrival of Islam in what is present-day Israel, when the Arabs conquered the then-Byzantine province in 636, according to Gideon Avni, an expert on early Islamic history.
"The discovery of the village and the mosque near is a significant contribution to the study of the history of the country during this turbulent period," he said.
All pictures copyrighted to Getty and Israel's Antiquities Authority