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Doctors report HIV-1 infection eliminated in London Patient



Doctors have announced this week that a patient who was positively diagnosed with the HIV-1 virus appears to have cured the AIDS-causing infection.

Second known case of HIV-1 elimination revealed in London Patient [19659003] HIV-infected T cell ” width=”1200″ height=”628″ nopin=”nopin”/>
Source: NIAID / Flickr

While technically referred to as a remission of the virus, doctors and researchers call on the field the cure for the patient, which is only called the London patient for reasons of integrity, has seen the removal of the virus from his body after undergoing the same medical procedure that eliminated the HIV-1

virus from the first announcement of a "cured" HIV positive person back in 2007.

That case, The so-called Berlin patient – but later identified as Timothy Ray Brown, 52, now from Palm Springs, California – abstained from a madman all over the world to replicate the result in his case after He underwent a bone marrow transplant to treat leukemia. Until this week, these efforts have failed.

This led many to worry that his case was a deviation that would probably not be repeated. Brown is optimistic that the London patient's remission will be as complete as his own. "If something has happened once in medical science, it may happen again," he told the New York Times: "I've been waiting for the company for a long time."

As for the London patient himself in an email at times, he said, "I feel responsible for helping doctors understand how it happened so that they can develop science."

Successful treatment used for London Patient and Berlin Patient Offers Hope

<img class = "img-responsive" title = "Bone-Marrow" src = "https://static.interestingengineering.com/images/MARCH /sizes/Bone-Marrow_resize_md.jpg "alt =" Bone marrow [19659004] Source: AFIP / Wikimedia Commons

"By achieving relief from a second patient with a similar approach, we have shown that the Berlin patient was not an anomaly and that indeed, treatment methods that eliminated HIV were in these two people, said Ravindra Gupta, a professor at the University College London's Division of Infection and Immunity, and the lead author of the study, published today in Nature.

ALSO SEE: GENE EDITING TOOL CRISPR CAN HELP DOCTORS DEATH CANCEL CELLS [19659016] In both cases, the two men were treated for cancer and received bone marrow transplants. In Brown's case, no one believed that the bone marrow transplant would cause the virus to be removed from the body – they just tried to treat their cancer – but that's what seems to have happened.

  CCR5
Source: Thomas Splettstoesser | scistyle.com / Wikimedia Commons

The bone marrow donors in both cases had a mutation in a protein called CCR5 that covers the outside of certain types of immune cells. In the case of the virus's HIV-1 strain, the virus uses CCR5 to access the immune cell and take over it. However, in the case of a mutated version of CCR5, known as delta 32, the virus cannot hook into the protein to gain access to the cell.

The London patient is the 36th name of a list of 38 recipients of donated bone marrow currently being tracked, all but six of whom received bone marrow with the delta 32 mutation. The 19th patient on the list of delta 32 donors has reportedly been antiviral for 4 months and an update of their condition is expected next week.

In patients with the delta 32 mutation, the immune system may continue to successfully fight the HIV-1 virus inside the body and eventually eliminate it altogether, rather than becoming overblown and compromised by the virus, which inevitably leads to the development of AIDS in it. infected person.

Not a Miracle Cure … Yet [19659023] AIDS Research ” width=”1200″ height=”628″ nopin=”nopin”/>
Source: NIAID / Flickr

It is not possible to simply give all 37 million HIV + people in the world a bone marrow transplant, and even if we The customer can only cure less than half of all HIV cases, HIV-1 infected.

Other viral strains, such as HIV-X4, are locked onto various proteins to enter the specific immune cells affected by delta 32, so that they would be unaffected by the treatment and perhaps even helped if the treatment method nt eliminates the HIV-X4 competition would normally be. face from HIV-1 for host cells to infect.

  HIV T Cell
Source: CDC

Nevertheless, the news offers an important motivation for doctors and researchers who hunt down a cure for HIV infections. With a second confirmed case of the virus being eliminated from the body, scientists now have a goal that they know they can beat – and they know where to look for it.

There is no way to know how long these referrals will be, so no one knows yet whether it is actually a cure for HIV or if it just looks like one. "In one way, the only person is to compare with the direct Berlin patient," Gupta said. "It's kind of the only standard we have right now."

CRISPR / Cas9 may be the key

 DNA CRISPR
Source: Pixabay

CRISPR / Cas9 was reportedly used by He Jiankui to edit gene bound to CCR5 production in Lulu and Nana, twin Chinese girls who may be the world's first infant whose genes were modified while still being embryos. He claims he tried to give them immunity to HIV infection and cleared a global four-storm of condemnation in the process.

It is still unclear whether he actually did what he claims has done, but there is no reason why CRISPR / Cas9 cannot be used successfully in patients infected with HIV-1 or any other strain of the virus, at least theoretically. The various proteins that these viruses need to thrive are all controlled by different genes in our genome, and we know that we can influence their production with the help of CRISPR / Cas9.

Knowing that mutations in these proteins can prevent the HIV virus from contemplating the immune system can be the key to unlocking gene therapies that can cure each virus strain.

There are always risks when editing the genome, because unintended consequences are almost safe. "There are a number of precision levels that need to be reached," said Dr. Mike McCune, who advises Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation on global health issues. "There is also concern that you can do something unpleasant, and in that case you might want a death switch."

Still with the results of the London patient who confirmed that the Berlin patient was not a fluke, it has shown what might be possible, so there is more reason to be hopeful than ever. "This will inspire people who do not cure a dream," says virologist Dr Annemarie Wensing from the Utrecht University Hospital in the Netherlands. "It can be reached."


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