Prague Fish and humans are about the same, experts did not think. Researcher Tom Koryt from the Biological Center of the Academy of Sciences in Budjovice, Czech Republic, found that fish’s immune systems are no different from humans’.
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Lidovky.cz: What can we learn from fish?
Zanu driving in parallel. When you open the hood, you get a picture of the engine in a mess of hoses, hoses, original cables that connect its walls. Most of them go to where the liquid is poured into the washing machine and those who are technically skilled from us to where the oil is poured. But we do not know the depth. Few people could name individuals and, in the case of penechme, specialists. At the same time, ten years ago, she came out of the production lines for a car equipped with an engine that was much clearer and they could handle routine repairs. Over the past 40 years, the engine has been developed and acquired accessories that help it work properly. At the same time, it complicates our understanding. It is easy for a hunter to understand how the engine of an old Trabant, not a modern Ferrari, works.
It is similar to the immune system. During development, it holds together and becomes a seductive formula. Fish, like evolution, are the oldest group of vertebrates equipped with the basic immunity elements we know of hunters.
Lidovky.cz: How is the immune system of fish and humans?
The parallels are voodoo plots. The basic elements of the so-called innate immunity, such as the ability of phagocytosis (absorbed by the fungus and pathogen of beech), are shared with most animals and its mechanisms are almost identical in our country, in fish and squid. Congenital immunity is fast and effective, but it is impossible to spread between individual pathogens and have limited memory, even when he encounters a pathogen, he always uses the same weapon. Immunological memory seemed like a novelty for the first time in the fish pipeline 530 million years ago. Two new types of flea blood cells began to circulate in the blood, equipped with special receptors, which not only can know exactly how pathogenic it is, but the next time they encounter it, they react with force and wash away the rapid destruction. And since the fish stand at the collision of the development of this immunological memory, they laid the foundation for all the verses of immunity.
Perhaps the biggest difference is the hematopoiesis, which takes place on our bone day, while in fish, the main source of flea blood cells is the dark red tissue in the kidneys that lies along the steak. On the other hand, the spleen plays the same role in both fish and fish, so all mucous membranes on fish have the same structure and function as in hunters. In the fish’s blood we find all the main populations of flea blood cells and thus all genes for the fish’s and the hunter’s immune response are identical.
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Lidovky.cz: What role do equivalents play?
Opposites are, in my opinion, the most important development of the new immune system ever. These are unique Y-shaped proteins produced by a population of flea blood cells (B lymphocytes). The arms of this Y have the ability to specifically receive antigens on the surface of viruses, bacteria and parasites. But their functions do not end there. With this connection, the equivalents can identify pathogens for the destruction of white blood cells. Activate each complement, which drills dry into the pathogen’s surface and kills them. The protrusions thus prevent the binding of the pathogen to the cell surface and can even recognize the virus-infected cells and ensure that they are eliminated.
Thanks to the enormous variety, we can create darkness against all threats, even if it is a pathogen, we have not encountered it. Protests are the most important weapon in the immunological memory and can be protected in the bloodstream and mucous membranes for several years and decades. Most vaccine protections against various diseases are based on antibodies, so they are the main indicator of long-term illness. In addition, this powerful weapon underwent development, and during the development, three types of equivalents were specialized for fish and nine types for hunters. Really Ferrari.
Lidovky.cz: How can we be inspired by fish when we fight parasites that suck humans?
The study of biology, evolution and the parasite is naturally influenced by our anthropocentric view. We dream of studying how to prevent infectious diseases when hunting so that we are as healthy as possible. In the study, however, the relationship between parasites and hosts does not matter, whether it is a parasite from the group ahavc, which attacks carp fish (model system in the laboratory), or whether it is the causative agent of malaria that invades red blood cells. There are many parallels in both conditions, they are mixed with the invasive strategies of the parasite, which focus on the weak points of the immune system and can manipulate it and the anti-inflammatory response to its advantage.
We want to find these parallels with the understanding that their understanding can reveal the relationship between parasites and immunity in an IRM context. Our work suggests that both the fish’s blood parasite and the hunter use the same mechanisms in sleeping sickness or malaria to circumvent the host’s response. This resemblance is overwhelming.
Trout are extremely susceptible to minimal changes in water quality and temperature.
Lidovky.cz: How can this be used for vaccine production?
The production of parasite vaccines is complicated by the number of strategies that parasites use to destroy and manipulate the host’s immune system. Our results from recent years confirm that the best understanding of parasite biology is crucial for the rapid development of vaccines. In N-model organisms, Sphaerospora molnari belongs to the group of parasitic aphids, including over 2500 species of solid parasites. Sphaerospora ijc in carp is relatively harmless, long coevoluc with its host, its arm wall sluggish. Other representatives of fishing vessels, however, cause significant deaths to aquaculture and wild fish, often with enormous economic consequences. Thanks to the work, it turns out that the preparation of vaccines against these diseases will be much more complicated, not expected, because these parasites are likely to have the ability to change the surface, similar to what the pathogen causes.
A simple vaccination with a dead parasite does not prevent this disease and it is necessary to understand in detail the life cycle of the parasite and how it changes the surface. We believe working with our unusual model and looking for parallels in their niche strategies may approach the development of spn vaccination, aum to protect fish or hunters.
Lidovky.cz: Will I also be able to produce a covid-19 vaccine in the study of equivalents?
I do not assume that the current research would significantly contribute to the production of vaccines, and this is not even an ambition. The community of researchers who worked on the issue of coronavirus before the arrested pandemic was similar. Only thanks to their hard work with basic research, methods and knowledge that they have gained in recent decades, we have an admirable amount of information about the disease covid-19 and only thanks to their hard work can we monitor the development of the vaccine in transmission. So we want to develop our research so that it is as well prepared for the future as possible.
Lidovky.cz: What’s fascinating about the immunity itself?
There’s alot! With the development of the study of immunology in recent decades, we are witnessing groundbreaking discoveries. I found out when colleagues from the University of Wageningen discovered that although fish do not have the ability to regulate their body temperature like mammals, they choose warm water, which speeds up their immune response and allows them to recover quickly. So I drop the temperature. I was completely fascinated by the discovery of colleagues from the University of New Mexico who showed that trout can honor viruses in water by releasing blood cells into the bloodstream ready to fight viruses. So trout ct virus!
The discovery of phagocytosis in B lymphocytes in turn changed the idea that white blood cells are just places for equivalents and showed that fish B lymphocytes did not agree with the catheters the researchers had inserted them into. I am fascinated by how immunity interferes with our daily lives, that the nerve-connected spleen is crucial for the sudden production of antibodies and that immunity in our permanent system plays an important role in our reading.
Lidovky.cz: How are you full of science for the future?
I would like to continue working on the development of responses and study not only the strategies by which pathogens can escape counter-reactions but thus provided a fundamental question for the development of immunology. For example, I can find out how long fish have a non-slip memory and how it is affected by winter when immunity is completely shut off due to dark temperatures. The question of the basic mechanisms of mucosal tolerance is also interesting, its answer would offer a way to better vaccinate for fish. But I would like to continue in the future to create the most accurate picture of the development of the immune system.