University of Oxford / AstraZeneca
The vaccine from the University of Oxford is delivered via a chimpanzee virus, called the vaccine vector. The vector contains the genetic code for the protein spikes found on coronavirus and triggers a strong immune response in the human body. The vaccine is in a combined phase 2/3 study in the UK and
has recently entered phase 3 trials in South Africa and Brazil.
CanSino Biologics Inc./Beijing Institute of Biotechnology
The vaccine developed by the Chinese company CanSino Biologics and the Beijing Institute of Biotechnology – a university close to the Chinese military – reportedly showed promising results in Phase 2 testing, although no trial data has been published. In a world first, the vaccine has now been approved for military use, but it is unclear how large it will be distributed.
American biotech company Moderna is developing a vaccine candidate that uses messenger RNA (or mRNA for short) to trick the body into producing viral proteins itself. No mRNA vaccine has ever been approved for an infectious disease and Moderna
has never released a product on the market. But advocates of the vaccine say it can be easier to mass produce than traditional vaccines.
Wuhan Institute of Biological Products / Sinopharm
Beijing Institute of Biological Products / Sinopharm
BioNTech / Fosun Pharma / Pfizer
Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences
Gamaleya Research Institute
Clover Biopharmaceuticals Inc./GSK/Dynavax
Anhui Zhifei Longcom Biopharmaceutical / Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences
People’s Liberation Army (PLA) Academy of Military Sciences / Walvax Biotech.
University of Melbourne / Murdoch Children’s Research Institute
The Murdoch Children’s Research Institute in Australia is conducting a phase 3 study with a nearly 100-year-old tuberculosis vaccine. The vaccine is not believed to protect directly against Covid-19 but may increase the body’s non-specific immune response.