Home / Business / Coronavirus vaccine tracker: How close are we to a vaccine? | World News

Coronavirus vaccine tracker: How close are we to a vaccine? | World News



Preclinical

vaccines not yet in human trials

132

Phase 1

vaccines in small-scale safety studies

14

Phase 2

vaccines in extended safety studies

8

Phase 3

vaccines in large-scale efficacy studies

2

Approved

vaccines approved for general use

0

Source: WHO. Last updated July 2

Researchers around the world are competing to develop a vaccine against Covid-19, with more than 140 candidate vaccines now being tracked by the World Health Organization (WHO).

Vaccines normally require many years of testing and additional time to produce at scale, but researchers hope to develop a coronavirus vaccine within 12 to 18 months.

Vaccines mimic the virus – or part of the virus – they protect against and stimulate the immune system to develop antibodies. They must adhere to higher safety standards than other drugs as they are given to millions of healthy people.

How are vaccines tested?

IN pre-clinical stage of tests, researchers give the vaccine to animals to see if it triggers an immune response.

IN phase 1 In clinical trials, the vaccine is given to a small group of people to determine if it is safe and to learn more about the immune response it provokes.

IN phase 2, the vaccine is given to hundreds of people so researchers can learn more about its safety and proper dosage.

IN phase 3, the vaccine is given to thousands of people to confirm its safety – including rare side effects – and its effectiveness. These studies involve a control group given placebo.

Vaccines in clinical trials

Ongoing phase

Phase ended

University of Oxford / AstraZeneca

The vaccine from the University of Oxford is delivered via a chimpanzee virus, called the vaccine vector. The vector contains the genetic code for the protein spikes found on coronavirus and triggers a strong immune response in the human body. The vaccine is in a combined phase 2/3 study in the UK and
has recently entered phase 3 trials in South Africa and Brazil.

CanSino Biologics Inc./Beijing Institute of Biotechnology

The vaccine developed by the Chinese company CanSino Biologics and the Beijing Institute of Biotechnology – a university close to the Chinese military – reportedly showed promising results in Phase 2 testing, although no trial data has been published. In a world first, the vaccine has now been approved for military use, but it is unclear how large it will be distributed.

American biotech company Moderna is developing a vaccine candidate that uses messenger RNA (or mRNA for short) to trick the body into producing viral proteins itself. No mRNA vaccine has ever been approved for an infectious disease and Moderna
has never released a product on the market. But advocates of the vaccine say it can be easier to mass produce than traditional vaccines.

Wuhan Institute of Biological Products / Sinopharm

Beijing Institute of Biological Products / Sinopharm

BioNTech / Fosun Pharma / Pfizer

Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences

Gamaleya Research Institute

Clover Biopharmaceuticals Inc./GSK/Dynavax

Anhui Zhifei Longcom Biopharmaceutical / Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences

People’s Liberation Army (PLA) Academy of Military Sciences / Walvax Biotech.

University of Melbourne / Murdoch Children’s Research Institute

The Murdoch Children’s Research Institute in Australia is conducting a phase 3 study with a nearly 100-year-old tuberculosis vaccine. The vaccine is not believed to protect directly against Covid-19 but may increase the body’s non-specific immune response.

Source: WHO. Last updated July 2


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