So far, specialists have not found samples that provide real evidence of the mechanisms of climate change in such ancient times. Eisen, researcher of the German Alfred Wegener Institute advanced in dialogue with ambito.com that the main discovery they could get is "the composition of the atmosphere in terms of the greenhouse effect, mainly carbon dioxide and methane" .
Especially during the transition from glacial cycles in the middle pistocene period, which still contains many issues for specialists. "It is necessary to understand these processes in the Earth's climate system, we do not fully understand what led the transition and the changes of the glacial-interglacial periods" he added.
The time limit was characterized by the first European project for the extraction of ice in Antarctica European Project for Ice Coring in Antarctica or EPICA ), which received ice samples at the age of 800,000.
From 1996 to 2004, scientists drilled the Antarctic ground and reconstructed the climate history of that time. Each centimeter of the frozen core counts: one meter long contains ten thousand years of climate history . At the same time, succeeded in measuring concentrations of the major greenhouse gases in the small air bubbles trapped in ice water . The connections they found were clear: when the climate of the climate was cold there was considerably less carbon dioxide and methane in the air than in warmer periods.
The project will involve 10 countries: Italy, France, Germany, UK, Switzerland, Denmark, Belgium, Norway, Sweden and the Netherlands drilled during three Antarctic summers, from mid-November to early February to a depth of 2,730 meters to find the valuable ice of one million and a half years.
The selected point, after a series of flights using a radar to analyze the ice layers below the surface, is one of the driest places on earth, where the average annual temperature is 54.5 ° below zero . This site gives a good resolution in the samples and the assurance that there is no risk of melting despite the heat flow from the interior of the planet.
"The perforations cost around 30 million euros and the financing begins in June. The first logistics season in Antarctica will take place between 2019/20 and the drilling season begins between 2021 and 2022" The requirement detailed.
Initial data from ice core analyzes should be available in 2025, enabling the international scientific community to launch a new chapter in the fight against climate change .